Lenguas MALAYO-POLINESIAS

 

El grupo malayo-polinesio está integrado por la práctica totalidad de lenguas austronesias ―excepto las pertenecientes al grupo formosiano o taiwanés, de las que derivan históricamente―, que se hablan en diversos puntos del océano Índico (Madagascar, Indonesia y Malasia) y Pacífico (Vietnam, Filipinas y las innumerables islas que forman los archipiélagos de Micronesia, Melanesia y Polinesia, junto con Nueva Zelanda y Hawái). Su distribución lingüística se debe a diversos procesos migratorios de los originarios pobladores austronesios, que llevaron su lengua (conocida como proto-austronesio) desde su asentamiento original en Taiwán a los distintos territorios anteriormente mencionados. Con cerca de 1.200 lenguas habladas en tres continentes distintos (África, Asia y Oceanía), el grupo malayo-polinesio constituye la mayor agrupación lingüística del mundo.

 

El término “malayo-polinesio” fue empleado por primera vez en 1836 por el antropólogo alemán Wilhelm von Humboldt para referirse a las lenguas habladas en los mares del sur (entre las que no se incluían las variedades lingüísticas de Melanesia y Micronesia, desconocidas por aquel entonces). Posteriormente, en 1899, el lingüista austriaco Wilhelm Schmidt acuñó el actual término “austronesio”, que englobaba ya las recién descubiertas lenguas melanesias y micronesias (y excluía, al mismo tiempo, los idiomas no austronesios de Papúa-Nueva Guinea). No obstante, la denominación “malayo-polinesia” siguió empleándose durante la mayor parte del siglo XX para hacer referencia a la macrofamilia austronesia.

 

En la actualidad, las lenguas malayo-polinesias cuentan con cerca de 475 millones de hablantes nativos (a fecha de 2010). Los principales idiomas dentro de cada agrupación lingüística (no sólo en función de su número total de hablantes, sino también por su importancia sociocultural y política) son los siguientes:

GRUPO FILIPINO

tagalo              28.000.000

cebuano                   21.000.000

ilocano                     9.100.000

hiligaynon           8.000.000

GRUPO SAMA-BAJAU

sama                    400.000

bajau                  250.000

GRUPO BORNEANO

malgache            18.000.000

rejang                 350.000

GRUPO SUNDA-SULAWESI

indonesio           138.000.000

javanés                    82.000.000

sundanés            38.000.000

malayo              26.000.000

madurés                    15.000.000

GRUPO MALAYO-POLINESIO CENTRO-ORIENTAL

tetum                   890.000

fiyiano                        455.000

samoano                        410.000

maorí                   130.000

gilbertés               103.000

tongano                        96.000

tahitiano               68.000

hawaiano                  1.000

 

El grupo malayo-polinesio presenta una gran diversidad lingüística, con numerosas agrupaciones de carácter local que resultan difíciles de encuadrar dentro de su conjunto (a lo que se añade la fuerte influencia gramatical de otras lenguas del Pacífico, como las de Papúa). Únicamente las lenguas oceánicas (habladas en Micronesia, Melanesia y Polinesia) presentan una clasificación interna sólida y generalmente aceptada. Como una primera aproximación ―de carácter más geográfico que filogenético― puede establecerse una división principal en dos grandes ramas: occidental o hesperonesia (del griego Ἓσπερος ‘lucero vespertino, Venus al atardecer’) y centro-oriental. Desde el punto de vista de su tipología sintáctica, el fenómeno morfosintáctico de la alineación austronesia (véase lenguas austronesias) permite establecer una macroagrupación paralela de variedades occidentales, centrales y orientales. La combinación de ambos criterios (geográfico y tipológico) produce como resultado la siguiente clasificación general dentro del grupo malayo-polinesio:

 

1. Rama occidental

       1.1. Subgrupo filipino (Filipinas, Taiwán, Malasia, Indonesia)

       1.2. Subgrupo sama-bajau (Filipinas, Indonesia, Malasia)

       1.3. Subgrupo borneano (Malasia, Indonesia, Madagascar, Filipinas, Brunéi)

       1.4. Subgrupo sunda-sulawesi (Indonesia, Malasia, Birmania, Tailandia, Camboya, Vietnam, China, Brunéi, Singapur, Palaos, Guam, Islas Marianas)

2. Rama centro-oriental

2.1. Grupo central (Indonesia, Timor Oriental, Molucas, Nueva Guinea)

2.2. Grupo oriental (Molucas, Nueva Guinea, Islas Salomón, Nueva Caledonia, Vanuatu, Fiyi, Polinesia, Melanesia, Micronesia)

2.2.1. Subgrupo halmahera-cenderawasih

2.2.2. Subgrupo oceánico

 

A su vez, cada uno de los subgrupos lingüísticos anteriores está integrado por diversas agrupaciones de lenguas (una cruz [†] indica que se trata de variedades lingüísticas ya desaparecidas o sin hablantes nativos):

 

1. Rama occidental

       1.1. Subgrupo filipino

             1.1.1. Subrama septentrional

                    1.1.1.1. Grupo batánico

                           1.1.1.1.1. ivatan

                           1.1.1.1.2. itbayat

                           1.1.1.1.3. yami

                    1.1.1.2. Grupo de Luzón septentrional

                           1.1.1.2.1. ilocano

                           1.1.1.2.2. isnag

                           1.1.1.2.3. atta

                           1.1.1.2.4. agta de Villaviciosa (†)

                           1.1.1.2.5. agta de Cagayán central

                           1.1.1.2.6. ibanag

                           1.1.1.2.7. itawis

                           1.1.1.2.8. yogad

                           1.1.1.2.9. gaddang

                           1.1.1.2.10. ga'dang

                           1.1.1.2.11. arta

                           1.1.1.2.12. agta dupaningan

                           1.1.1.2.13. agta dumagat de Casiguran

                           1.1.1.2.14. agta de Nagtipunan

                           1.1.1.2.15. agta de Palanan

                           1.1.1.2.16. paranan

                           1.1.1.2.17. agta de Dinapigue (†)

                           1.1.1.2.18. agta de Dicamay (†)

                           1.1.1.2.19. alta septentrional

                           1.1.1.2.20. alta meridional

                           1.1.1.2.21. isinai

                           1.1.1.2.22. itneg

                           1.1.1.2.23. kalinga

                           1.1.1.2.24. ifugao

                           1.1.1.2.25. balangao

                           1.1.1.2.26. bontoc

                           1.1.1.2.27. kankanaey

                           1.1.1.2.28. ilongot

                           1.1.1.2.29. pangasinense

                           1.1.1.2.30. ibaloi

                           1.1.1.2.31. karao

                           1.1.1.2.32. iwaak

                           1.1.1.2.33. kallahan

                           1.1.1.2.34. agta dumaget de Umiray

                    1.1.1.3. Grupo de Luzón central

                           1.1.1.3.1. kapampangan

                           1.1.1.3.2. agta de Remontado

                           1.1.1.3.3. zambal

                           1.1.1.3.4. bolinao

                           1.1.1.3.5. botolan

                           1.1.1.3.6. abellen

                           1.1.1.3.7. ambala

                           1.1.1.3.8. mag-antsi

                           1.1.1.3.9. mag-indi

                           1.1.1.3.10. mariveleño

                    1.1.1.4. Grupo de Mindoro septentrional

                           1.1.1.4.1. alangan

                           1.1.1.4.2. iraya

                           1.1.1.4.3. tadyawan

             1.1.2. Subrama central

                    1.1.2.1. Grupo de Mindoro meridional

                           1.1.2.1.1. buhid

                           1.1.2.1.2. tawbuid

                           1.1.2.1.3. hanunóo

                    1.1.2.2. Grupo bicolano

                           1.1.2.2.1. bicolano central

                           1.1.2.2.2. bicolano de Catanduanes meridional

                           1.1.2.2.3. inagta partido

                           1.1.2.2.4. agta del monte Iraya

                           1.1.2.2.5. agta del monte Iriga

                           1.1.2.2.6. bicolano de Albay

                           1.1.2.2.7. bicolano de Rinconada

                           1.1.2.2.8. bicolano de Pandan

                    1.1.2.3. Grupo bisakol

                           1.1.2.3.1. sorsogueño meridional

                           1.1.2.3.2. sorsogueño septentrional

                           1.1.2.3.3. masbateño

                    1.1.2.4. Grupo bisaya

                           1.1.2.4.1. tausug

                           1.1.2.4.2. butuanon

                           1.1.2.4.3. surigaonon

                           1.1.2.4.4. cebuano

                           1.1.2.4.5. waray-waray

                           1.1.2.4.6. baybayanon

                           1.1.2.4.7. kinabalian

                           1.1.2.4.8. hiligaynon

                           1.1.2.4.9. bantayanon

                           1.1.2.4.10. capiceño

                           1.1.2.4.11. porohanon

                           1.1.2.4.12. ati

                           1.1.2.4.13. romblomanon

                           1.1.2.4.14. bantoanon

                           1.1.2.4.15. aklanon

                           1.1.2.4.16. antiqueño

                           1.1.2.4.17. onhan

                           1.1.2.4.18. ratagnon

                           1.1.2.4.19. cuyonon

                           1.1.2.4.20. caluyanon

                    1.1.2.5. Grupo mansaka

                           1.1.2.5.1. davaoeño

                           1.1.2.5.2. mansaka

                           1.1.2.5.3. mandaya

                           1.1.2.5.4. kamayo

                           1.1.2.5.5. kalagan

                           1.1.2.5.6. mamanwa

                    1.1.2.6. Grupo palawánico

                           1.1.2.6.1. palawano

                           1.1.2.6.2. tagbanwa de Aborlan

                           1.1.2.6.3. tagbanwa central

                           1.1.2.6.4. tagbanwa de Calamian

                           1.1.2.6.5. agutaynen

                           1.1.2.6.6. batak

                    1.1.2.7. manide

                    1.1.2.8. inagta Alabat

                    1.1.2.9. ata

                    1.1.2.10. ayta de Sorsogón

                    1.1.2.11. ayta de Tayabas (†)

                    1.1.2.12. agta de Samar (†)

                    1.1.2.13. katabangan (†)

                    1.1.2.14. karolanos

                    1.1.2.15. magahat

                    1.1.2.16. sulod

                    1.1.2.17. tagalo

             1.1.3. Subrama meridional

                    1.1.3.1. Grupo danao

                           1.1.3.1.1. maguindanao

                           1.1.3.1.2. maranao

                           1.1.3.1.3. iranun

                    1.1.3.2. subanon

                    1.1.3.3. Grupo manobo

                           1.1.3.3.1. agusan

                           1.1.3.3.2. ata manobo

                           1.1.3.3.3. matigsalug

                           1.1.3.3.4. obo

                           1.1.3.3.5. bukidnon occidental

                           1.1.3.3.6. ilianen

                           1.1.3.3.7. binukid

                           1.1.3.3.8. cagayano

                           1.1.3.3.9. higaonon

                           1.1.3.3.10. kinamigin

                           1.1.3.3.11. tagabawa

                           1.1.3.3.12. sarangani

                           1.1.3.3.13. cotabato

                    1.1.3.4. Grupo de Mindanao meridional

                           1.1.3.4.1. bagobo

                           1.1.3.4.2. bilán

                           1.1.3.4.3. tboli

                           1.1.3.4.4. tiruray

                    1.1.3.5. Grupo gorontalo-mongondow

                           1.1.3.5.1. gorontalo

                           1.1.3.5.2. suwawa

                           1.1.3.5.3. bintauna

                           1.1.3.5.4. kaidipang

                           1.1.3.5.5. lolak

                           1.1.3.5.6. bolango

                           1.1.3.5.7. buol

                           1.1.3.5.8. mongondow

                           1.1.3.5.9. ponosakan

                    1.1.3.6. Grupo minahasa

                           1.1.3.6.1. tonsawang

                           1.1.3.6.2. tontemboan

                           1.1.3.6.3. tondano

                           1.1.3.6.4. tombulu

                           1.1.3.6.5. tonsea

                    1.1.3.7. Grupo sangírico

                           1.1.3.7.1. sangirés

                           1.1.3.7.2. sangil

                           1.1.3.7.3. talaud

                           1.1.3.7.4. bantik

                           1.1.3.7.5. ratahan

 

       1.2. Subgrupo sama-bajau

             1.2.1. sama

             1.2.2. sama de Pangutaran

             1.2.3. bajau

             1.2.4. abaknon

 

       1.3. Subgrupo borneano

             1.3.1. Rama septentrional

                    1.3.1.1. Grupo sabahano

                           1.3.1.1.1. bonggi

                           1.3.1.1.2. molbog

                           1.3.1.1.3. ida'an

                           1.3.1.1.4. Subgrupo dusúnico

                                 1.3.1.1.4.1. bisaya de Brunéi

                                 1.3.1.1.4.2. bisaya de Sabah

                                 1.3.1.1.4.3. tatana

                                 1.3.1.1.4.4. lotud

                                 1.3.1.1.4.5. dusun

                                 1.3.1.1.4.6. kuijau

                                 1.3.1.1.4.7. papar

                                 1.3.1.1.4.8. kadazan oriental

                                 1.3.1.1.4.9. gana'

                                 1.3.1.1.4.10. talantang

                                 1.3.1.1.4.11. rungus

                                 1.3.1.1.4.12. kimaragang

                                 1.3.1.1.4.13. tobilung

                                 1.3.1.1.4.14. kadazan del río Klias

                                 1.3.1.1.4.15. kadazan costero

                                 1.3.1.1.4.16. dumpas

                           1.3.1.1.5. Subgrupo paitánico

                                 1.3.1.1.5.1. yakan

                                 1.3.1.1.5.2. tombonuwo

                                 1.3.1.1.5.3. kinabatangan

                                 1.3.1.1.5.4. lobu-rumanau

                                 1.3.1.1.5.5. lobu de Tampias

                                 1.3.1.1.5.6. sungai de Abai

                          1.3.1.1.6. Subgrupo murútico

                                 1.3.1.1.6.1. murut de Keningau

                                  1.3.1.1.6.2. tagol

                                 1.3.1.1.6.3. paluan

                                 1.3.1.1.6.4. timugon

                                 1.3.1.1.6.5. bookan

                                 1.3.1.1.6.6. okolod

                                 1.3.1.1.6.7. murut de Selungai

                           1.3.1.1.7. Subgrupo tidong

                                 1.3.1.1.7.1. tidong

                                 1.3.1.1.7.2. murut de Sembakung

                                 1.3.1.1.7.3. kalabakan

                                 1.3.1.1.7.4. murut de Serudung

                    1.3.1.2. Grupo sarawak septentrional

                           1.3.1.2.1. Subgrupo kenyah

                                 1.3.1.2.1.1. kenyah

                                 1.3.1.2.1.2. sebob

                                 1.3.1.2.1.3. tutoh

                                 1.3.1.2.1.4. kenyah wahau

                                 1.3.1.2.1.5. uma' lasan

                                 1.3.1.2.1.6. uma' lung

                           1.3.1.2.2. penan

                           1.3.1.2.3. punan tubu

                           1.3.1.2.4. Subgrupo kelabítico

                                 1.3.1.2.4.1. kelabit

                                  1.3.1.2.4.2. lengilu

                                  1.3.1.2.4.3. lun bawang

                                  1.3.1.2.4.4. sa'ban

                                  1.3.1.2.4.5. tring

                           1.3.1.2.5. Subgrupo berawan

                                 1.3.1.2.5.1. berawan

                                 1.3.1.2.5.2. belait

                                 1.3.1.2.5.3. kiput

                                 1.3.1.2.5.4. narom

                                  1.3.1.2.5.5. tutong

                                  1.3.1.2.5.6. lelak (†)

                           1.3.1.2.6. bintulu

                    1.3.1.3. Grupo melanau-kajang

                           1.3.1.3.1. daro-matu

                           1.3.1.3.2. kanowit-tanjong

                           1.3.1.3.3. melanau

                           1.3.1.3.4. seru (†)

                           1.3.1.3.5. kajaman

                           1.3.1.3.6. lahanan

                           1.3.1.3.7. sekapan

                           1.3.1.3.8. bukitan

                           1.3.1.3.9. punan batu

                           1.3.1.3.10. sian

                           1.3.1.3.11. ukit

                           1.3.1.3.12. Subgrupo rejang–sajau

                                 1.3.1.3.12.1. basap

                                 1.3.1.3.12.2. burusu

                                 1.3.1.3.12.3. punan

                                 1.3.1.3.12.4. sajau

                                 1.3.1.3.12.5. punan merap

                           1.3.1.3.13. bukat

             1.3.2. Grupo kayánico

                    1.3.2.1. kayan

                    1.3.2.2. bahau

                    1.3.2.3. modang

                    1.3.2.4. segai

                    1.3.2.5. bolongan

                    1.3.2.6. hovongan

                    1.3.2.7. aoheng

                    1.3.2.8. aput

                    1.3.2.9. punan merah

                    1.3.2.10. dayak krio

                    1.3.2.11. murik

             1.3.3. Grupo dayak interior

                    1.3.3.1. Subgrupo bakati'

                          1.3.3.1.1. bakati'

                          1.3.3.1.2. sara

                          1.3.3.1.3. lara'

                    1.3.3.2. Subgrupo bidayuh

                           1.3.3.2.1. bukar-sadong

                           1.3.3.2.2. rejang

                           1.3.3.2.3. nasal

                           1.3.3.2.4. biatah

                           1.3.3.2.5. tringgus

                           1.3.3.2.6. jagoi

                    1.3.3.3. Subgrupo meridional

                            1.3.3.3.1. jangkang

                           1.3.3.3.2. kembayan

                           1.3.3.3.3. semandang

                           1.3.3.3.4. ribun

                    1.3.3.4. benyadu'

                    1.3.3.5. sanggau

             1.3.4. Grupo barito

                    1.3.4.1. Subgrupo barito oriental

                           1.3.4.1.1. deyah

                           1.3.4.1.2. malang

                           1.3.4.1.3. witu

                           1.3.4.1.4. ma'anyan

                           1.3.4.1.5. malgache

                           1.3.4.1.6. lawangan

                           1.3.4.1.7. tawoyan

                    1.3.4.2. Subgrupo barito occidental

                           1.3.4.2.1. kohin

                           1.3.4.2.2. dohoi

                           1.3.4.2.3. siang

                           1.3.4.2.4. bakumpai

                           1.3.4.2.5. ngaju

                    1.3.4.3. Subgrupo mahakam

                           1.3.4.3.1. ampanang

                           1.3.4.1.2. tunjung

 

       1.4. Subgrupo sunda-sulawesi

             1.4.1. Rama sulawesi central-meridional

                    1.4.1.1. Grupo celébico

                          1.4.1.1.1. Subgrupo kaili–pamona

                                 1.4.1.1.1.1. kaili

                                 1.4.1.1.1.2. moma

                                 1.4.1.1.1.3. lindu

                                 1.4.1.1.1.4. topoiyo

                                 1.4.1.1.1.5. sedoa

                                 1.4.1.1.1.6. pamona

                                 1.4.1.1.1.7. tombelala

                                 1.4.1.1.1.8. rampi

                                 1.4.1.1.1.9. uma

                                 1.4.1.1.1.10. sarudu

                                 1.4.1.1.1.11. bada

                                 1.4.1.1.1.12. behoa

                                 1.4.1.1.1.13. napu

                           1.4.1.1.2. Subgrupo tomini–tolitoli

                                  1.4.1.1.2.1. totoli

                                  1.4.1.1.2.2. boano

                                  1.4.1.1.2.3. lauje

                                  1.4.1.1.2.4. tomini

                                  1.4.1.1.2.5. dondo

                                  1.4.1.1.2.6. balaesang

                                  1.4.1.1.2.7. pendau

                                  1.4.1.1.2.8. dampelas

                                  1.4.1.1.2.9. taje

                                  1.4.1.1.2.10. tajio

                           1.4.1.1.3. Subgrupo wotu–wolio

                                  1.4.1.1.3.1. kalao

                                  1.4.1.1.3.2. laiyolo

                                  1.4.1.1.3.3. wolio

                                  1.4.1.1.3.4. kamaru

                                  1.4.1.1.3.5. wotu

                           1.4.1.1.4. Subgrupo saluan–banggai

                                  1.4.1.1.4.1. banggai

                                  1.4.1.1.4.2. balantak

                                  1.4.1.1.4.3. andio

                                  1.4.1.1.4.4. bobongko

                                  1.4.1.1.4.5. saluan

                                  1.4.1.1.4.6. batui

                           1.4.1.1.5. Subgrupo bungku–tolaki

                                  1.4.1.1.5.1. moronene

                                  1.4.1.1.5.2. bungku

                                  1.4.1.1.5.3. bahonsuai

                                  1.4.1.1.5.4. koroni

                                  1.4.1.1.5.5. kulisusu

                                  1.4.1.1.5.6. taloki

                                  1.4.1.1.5.7. wawonii

                                  1.4.1.1.5.8. mori bawah

                                  1.4.1.1.5.9. mori atas

                                  1.4.1.1.5.10. padoe

                                  1.4.1.1.5.11. tomadino

                                  1.4.1.1.5.12. tolaki

                                  1.4.1.1.5.13. rahambuu

                                  1.4.1.1.5.14. kodeoha

                                  1.4.1.1.5.15. waru

                           1.4.1.1.6. Subgrupo muna–buton

                                  1.4.1.1.6.1. liabuku

                                  1.4.1.1.6.2. muna

                                  1.4.1.1.6.3. pancana

                                  1.4.1.1.6.4. kioko

                                  1.4.1.1.6.5. kaimbulawa

                                  1.4.1.1.6.6. busoa

                                  1.4.1.1.6.7. lasalimu

                                  1.4.1.1.6.8. kumbewaha

                                  1.4.1.1.6.9. cia-cia

                                  1.4.1.1.6.10. hukumina (†)

                                  1.4.1.1.6.11. tukang besi

                                  1.4.1.1.6.12. bonerate

                    1.4.1.2. Grupo sulawesi meridional

                           1.4.1.2.1. Subgrupo buginés

                                  1.4.1.2.1.1. buginés

                                  1.4.1.2.1.2. campalagian

                           1.4.1.2.2. Subgrupo tamánico

                                  1.4.1.2.2.1. mbalo

                                  1.4.1.2.2.2. taman

                           1.4.1.2.3. Subgrupo macasarés

                                  1.4.1.2.3.1. bentong

                                  1.4.1.2.3.2. konjo

                                  1.4.1.2.3.3. macasarés

                                  1.4.1.2.3.4. selayarés

                           1.4.1.2.4. Subgrupo seko

                                  1.4.1.2.4.1. budong-budong

                                  1.4.1.2.4.2. panasuan

                                  1.4.1.2.4.3. seko

                           1.4.1.2.5. lemolang

                           1.4.1.2.6. Subgrupo septentrional

                                  1.4.1.2.6.1. mamuju

                                  1.4.1.2.6.2. mandarés

                                  1.4.1.2.6.3. malimpung

                                  1.4.1.2.6.4. maiwa

                                  1.4.1.2.6.5. duri

                                  1.4.1.2.6.6. enrekang

                                  1.4.1.2.6.7. aralle-tabulahan

                                  1.4.1.2.6.8. dakka

                                  1.4.1.2.6.9. pannei

                                  1.4.1.2.6.10. bambam

                                  1.4.1.2.6.11. ulumanda'

                                  1.4.1.2.6.12. mamasa

                                  1.4.1.2.6.13. kalumpang

                                  1.4.1.2.6.14. tae'

                                  1.4.1.2.6.15. toraja meridional

                                  1.4.1.2.6.16. talondo'

             1.4.2. Rama sonda

                    1.4.2.1. Grupo moken

                           1.4.2.1.1. moken

                           1.4.2.1.2. moklen

                    1.4.2.2. Grupo de Sumatra noroccidental

                           1.4.2.2.1. gayo

                           1.4.2.2.2. Subgrupo batak

                                  1.4.2.2.2.1. batak dairi

                                  1.4.2.2.2.2. batak karo

                                  1.4.2.2.2.3. batak simalungun

                                  1.4.2.2.2.4. batak mandailing

                                  1.4.2.2.2.5. batak angkola

                                  1.4.2.2.2.6. batak toba

                           1.4.2.2.3. nias

                           1.4.2.2.4. sikule

                           1.4.2.2.5. simeulue

                           1.4.2.2.6. mentawai

                           1.4.2.2.7. enggano

                    1.4.2.3. Grupo malayo-sumbawano

                           1.4.2.3.1. Subgrupo sundanés

                                  1.4.2.3.1.1. sundanés

                                  1.4.2.3.1.2. badui

                           1.4.2.3.2. Subgrupo madurés

                                  1.4.2.3.2.1. madurés

                                  1.4.2.3.2.2. kangean

                           1.4.2.3.3. Subgrupo chámico

                                  1.4.2.3.3.1. achenés

                                  1.4.2.3.3.2. haroi

                                  1.4.2.3.3.3. cham

                                  1.4.2.3.3.4. rade

                                  1.4.2.3.3.5. jarai

                                  1.4.2.3.3.6. chru

                                  1.4.2.3.3.7. roglai

                                  1.4.2.3.3.8. tsat

                           1.4.2.3.4. Subgrupo malayo

                                  1.4.2.3.4.1. malayo

                                         1.4.2.3.4.1.1. malayo estándar

                                         1.4.2.3.4.1.2. indonesio

                                  1.4.2.3.4.2. lubu

                                  1.4.2.3.4.3. minangkabau

                                  1.4.2.3.4.4. tapan

                                  1.4.2.3.4.5. duano'

                                  1.4.2.3.4.6. bengkulu

                                  1.4.2.3.4.7. pekal

                                  1.4.2.3.4.8. col

                                  1.4.2.3.4.9. kaur

                                  1.4.2.3.4.10. musi

                                  1.4.2.3.4.11. haji

                                  1.4.2.3.4.12. kerinci

                                  1.4.2.3.4.13. jambi

                                  1.4.2.3.4.14. kubu

                                  1.4.2.3.4.15. bangka

                                  1.4.2.3.4.16. loncong

                                  1.4.2.3.4.17. larantuka

                                  1.4.2.3.4.18. berau

                                  1.4.2.3.4.19. kutai

                                  1.4.2.3.4.20. banjarés

                                  1.4.2.3.4.21. pontianak

                                  1.4.2.3.4.22. sarawak

                                  1.4.2.3.4.23. malayo de Brunéi

                                  1.4.2.3.4.24. kedah

                                  1.4.2.3.4.25. perak

                                  1.4.2.3.4.26. terengganu

                                  1.4.2.3.4.27. pahang

                                  1.4.2.3.4.28. temuan

                                  1.4.2.3.4.29. jakun

                                  1.4.2.3.4.30. orang kanaq

                                  1.4.2.3.4.31. orang seletar

                                  1.4.2.3.4.32. urak lawoi'

                                  1.4.2.3.4.33. pattani

                           1.4.2.3.5. Subgrupo ibánico

                                  1.4.2.3.5.1. iban

                                  1.4.2.3.5.2. balau

                                  1.4.2.3.5.3. remun

                                  1.4.2.3.5.4. sebuyau

                                  1.4.2.3.5.5. mualang

                                  1.4.2.3.5.6. seberuang

                                  1.4.2.3.5.7. kendayan

                                  1.4.2.3.5.8. keninjal

                                  1.4.2.3.5.9. bamayo

                           1.4.2.3.6. Subgrupo bali-sasak

                                  1.4.2.3.6.1. balinés

                                  1.4.2.3.6.2. sasak

                                  1.4.2.3.6.3. sumbawa

                    1.4.2.4. Grupo lampúngico

                           1.4.2.4.1. lampung

                           1.4.2.4.2. komering

                    1.4.2.5. javanés

             1.4.3. Rama micronesia occidental

                    1.4.3.1. palauano

                    1.4.3.2. chamorro

 

2. Rama centro-oriental

       2.1. Grupo central

             2.1.1. Subgrupo sunda-flores

                    2.1.1.1. bima

                    2.1.1.2. Subrama sumba

                           2.1.1.2.1. hawu

                           2.1.1.2.2. dhao

                           2.1.1.2.3. kambera

                           2.1.1.2.4. mamboru

                           2.1.1.2.5. anakalangu

                           2.1.1.2.6. wanukaka

                           2.1.1.2.7. pondok

                           2.1.1.2.8. baliledo

                           2.1.1.2.9. wejewa

                           2.1.1.2.10. lamboya

                           2.1.1.2.11. kodi

                           2.1.1.2.12. gaura

                    2.1.1.3. Subrama ende-manggarai

                           2.1.1.3.1. manggarai

                           2.1.1.3.2. riung

                           2.1.1.3.3. rembong

                           2.1.1.3.4. rajong

                           2.1.1.3.5. kepo'

                           2.1.1.3.6. wae rana

                           2.1.1.3.7. palu'e

                           2.1.1.3.8. ende

                           2.1.1.3.9. li'o

                           2.1.1.3.10. nage

                           2.1.1.3.11. ke'o

                           2.1.1.3.12. ngadha

                           2.1.1.3.13. so'a

                           2.1.1.3.14. rongga

             2.1.2. Subgrupo flores-lembata

                    2.1.2.1. kedang

                    2.1.2.2. sika

                    2.1.2.3. lamatuka

                    2.1.2.4. lewo eleng

                    2.1.2.5. levuka

                    2.1.2.6. lembata meridional

                    2.1.2.7. lamaholot

                    2.1.2.8. alor

                    2.1.2.9. lamalera

                    2.1.2.10. lewotobi

                    2.1.2.11. adonara

                    2.1.2.12. ile ape

                    2.1.2.13. lembata occidental

             2.1.3. Subgrupo selaru

                    2.1.3.1. selaru

                    2.1.3.2. seluwasan

             2.1.4. Subgrupo kei-tanimbar

                    2.1.4.1. kei

                    2.1.4.2. fordata

                    2.1.4.3. yamdena

                    2.1.4.4. onin

                    2.1.4.5. sekar

                    2.1.4.6. uruangnirin

             2.1.5. Subgrupo aru

                    2.1.5.1. barakai

                    2.1.5.2. batuley

                    2.1.5.3. mariri

                    2.1.5.4. dobel

                    2.1.5.5. kola

                    2.1.5.6. kompane

                    2.1.5.7. karey

                    2.1.5.8. koba

                    2.1.5.9. lorang

                    2.1.5.10. lola

                    2.1.5.11. manombai

                    2.1.5.12. tarangan oriental

                    2.1.5.13. tarangan occidental

                    2.1.5.14. ujir

             2.1.6. Subgrupo moluqueño central

                    2.1.6.1. teor

                    2.1.6.2. kur

                    2.1.6.3. ambelau

                    2.1.6.4. buru

                    2.1.6.5. lisela

                    2.1.6.6. palumata (†)

                    2.1.6.7. moksela (†)

                    2.1.6.8. sula

                    2.1.6.9. mangole

                    2.1.6.10. taliabo

                    2.1.6.11. banda

                    2.1.6.12. bati

                    2.1.6.13. geser

                    2.1.6.14. watubela

                    2.1.6.15. bobot

                    2.1.6.16. masiwang

                    2.1.6.17. hoti (†)

                    2.1.6.18. benggoi

                    2.1.6.19. salas

                    2.1.6.20. liana

                    2.1.6.21. Subrama nunusaku

                           2.1.6.21.1. kayeli (†)

                           2.1.6.21.2. nuaulu

                           2.1.6.21.3. huaulu

                           2.1.6.21.4. manusela

                           2.1.6.21.5. wemale

                           2.1.6.21.6. yalahatan

                           2.1.6.21.7. hulung (†)

                           2.1.6.21.8. saleman

                           2.1.6.21.9. loun (†)

                           2.1.6.21.10. alune

                           2.1.6.21.11. naka'ela (†)

                           2.1.6.21.12. lisabata-nuniali

                           2.1.6.21.13. asilulu

                           2.1.6.21.14. luhu

                           2.1.6.21.15. manipa

                           2.1.6.21.16. wakasihu

                           2.1.6.21.17. boano

                           2.1.6.21.18. sepa

                           2.1.6.21.19. teluti

                           2.1.6.21.20. paulohi (†)

                           2.1.6.21.21. kaibobo

                           2.1.6.21.22. hitu

                           2.1.6.21.23. tulehu

                           2.1.6.21.24. laha

                           2.1.6.21.25. seit-kaitetu

                           2.1.6.21.26. kamarian (†)

                           2.1.6.21.27. haruku

                           2.1.6.21.28. amahai

                           2.1.6.21.29. nusa laut (†)

                           2.1.6.21.30. saparua

                           2.1.6.21.31. latu

             2.1.7. Subgrupo timorés

                    2.1.7.1. Subrama babar

                           2.1.7.1.1. damar occidental

                           2.1.7.1.2. dawera-daweloor

                           2.1.7.1.3. babar septentrional

                           2.1.7.1.4. dai

                           2.1.7.1.5. masela

                           2.1.7.1.6. serili

                           2.1.7.1.7. babar suroriental

                           2.1.7.1.8. emplawas

                           2.1.7.1.9. imroing

                           2.1.7.1.10. tela'a

                    2.1.7.2. kemak

                    2.1.7.3. tocodede

                    2.1.7.4. mambai

                    2.1.7.5. idalaka

                    2.1.7.6. dawan

                    2.1.7.7. amarasi

                    2.1.7.8. helong

                    2.1.7.9. bilba

                    2.1.7.10. dengka

                    2.1.7.11. lole

                    2.1.7.12. ringgou

                    2.1.7.13. dela-oenale

                    2.1.7.14. termanu

                    2.1.7.15. tii

                    2.1.7.16. tetum

                    2.1.7.17. bekais

                    2.1.7.18. aputai

                    2.1.7.19. ili'uun

                    2.1.7.20. perai

                    2.1.7.21. tugun

                    2.1.7.22. adabe

                    2.1.7.23. galoli

                    2.1.7.24. waimoa

                    2.1.7.25. habu

                    2.1.7.26. kairui-midiki

                    2.1.7.27. luang

                    2.1.7.28. makuva

                    2.1.7.29. kisar

                    2.1.7.30. romang

                    2.1.7.31. leti

                    2.1.7.32. damar oriental

                    2.1.7.33. te'un

                    2.1.7.34. nila (†)

                    2.1.7.35. serua (†)

             2.1.8. naueti

             2.1.9. kowiai

 

       2.2. Grupo oriental

             2.2.1. Subgrupo halmahera-cenderawasih

                    2.2.1.1. Subrama halmahera

                           2.2.1.1.1. gane

                           2.2.1.1.2. taba

                           2.2.1.1.3. buli

                           2.2.1.1.4. maba

                           2.2.1.1.5. patani

                           2.2.1.1.6. sawai

                           2.2.1.1.7. gebe

                           2.2.1.1.8. waigeo

                           2.2.1.1.9. biga

                           2.2.1.1.10. as

                           2.2.1.1.11. maden

                           2.2.1.1.12. matbat

                           2.2.1.1.13. ma'ya

                    2.2.1.2. Subrama cenderawasih

                           2.2.1.2.1. biak

                           2.2.1.2.2. dusner

                           2.2.1.2.3. meoswar

                           2.2.1.2.4. Grupo yapen

                                  2.2.1.2.4.1. kurudu

                                  2.2.1.2.4.2. wabo

                                  2.2.1.2.4.3. ambai

                                  2.2.1.2.4.4. ansus

                                  2.2.1.2.4.5. busami

                                  2.2.1.2.4.6. munggui

                                  2.2.1.2.4.7. marau

                                  2.2.1.2.4.8. pom

                                  2.2.1.2.4.9. papuma

                                  2.2.1.2.4.10. roon

                                  2.2.1.2.4.11. serui-laut

                                  2.2.1.2.4.12. wandamen

                                  2.2.1.2.4.13. woi

                           2.2.1.2.5. yaur

                           2.2.1.2.6. yeresiam

                           2.2.1.2.7. yeretuar

                    2.2.1.3. irarutu

                    2.2.1.4. kuri

                    2.2.1.5. arguni

                    2.2.1.6. bedoanas

                    2.2.1.7. erokwanas

                    2.2.1.8. mor

                    2.2.1.9. tandia (†)

                    2.2.1.10. waropen

                    2.2.1.11. Subrama mamberamo

                           2.2.1.11.1. warembori

                           2.2.1.11.2. yoke

             2.2.2. Subgrupo oceánico

                    2.2.2.1. Subrama del almirantazgo

                           2.2.2.1.1. Grupo manus

                                  2.2.2.1.1.1. nyindrou

                                  2.2.2.1.1.2. sori-harengan

                                  2.2.2.1.1.3. hermit (†)

                                  2.2.2.1.1.4. bipi

                                  2.2.2.1.1.5. mondropolon

                                  2.2.2.1.1.6. tulu-bohuai

                                  2.2.2.1.1.7. khehek

                                  2.2.2.1.1.8. likum

                                  2.2.2.1.1.9. loniu

                                  2.2.2.1.1.10. mokerang

                                  2.2.2.1.1.11. pak-tong

                                  2.2.2.1.1.12. andra-hus

                                  2.2.2.1.1.13. elu

                                  2.2.2.1.1.14. leipon

                                  2.2.2.1.1.15. papitalai

                                  2.2.2.1.1.16. ponam

                                  2.2.2.1.1.17. ere

                                  2.2.2.1.1.18. kele

                                  2.2.2.1.1.19. kurti

                                  2.2.2.1.1.20. koro

                                  2.2.2.1.1.21. lele

                                  2.2.2.1.1.22. nali

                                  2.2.2.1.1.23. titan

                           2.2.2.1.2. baluan-pam

                           2.2.2.1.3. lenkau

                           2.2.2.1.4. lou

                           2.2.2.1.5. nauna

                           2.2.2.1.6. penchal

                           2.2.2.1.7. kaniet (†)

                           2.2.2.1.8. seimat

                           2.2.2.1.9. wuvulu-aua

                           2.2.2.1.10. yapés

                           2.2.2.1.11. nguluwan

                    2.2.2.2. Subrama de San Matías

                           2.2.2.2.1. mussau-emira

                           2.2.2.2.2. tenis

                    2.2.2.3. Subrama oceánica occidental

                           2.2.2.3.1. Grupo de Nueva Guinea septentrional

                                  2.2.2.3.1.1. sobei

                                  2.2.2.3.1.2. tarpia

                                  2.2.2.3.1.3. kayupulau

                                  2.2.2.3.1.4. ormu

                                  2.2.2.3.1.5. tobati

                                  2.2.2.3.1.6. anus

                                  2.2.2.3.1.7. bonggo

                                  2.2.2.3.1.8. liki

                                  2.2.2.3.1.9. masimasi

                                  2.2.2.3.1.10. podena

                                  2.2.2.3.1.11. kaptiau

                                  2.2.2.3.1.12. wakde

                                  2.2.2.3.1.13. yamna

                                  2.2.2.3.1.14. yarsun

                                  2.2.2.3.1.15. arop-sissano

                                  2.2.2.3.1.16. sera

                                  2.2.2.3.1.17. sissano

                                  2.2.2.3.1.18. ulau-suain

                                  2.2.2.3.1.19. tumleo

                                  2.2.2.3.1.20. yakamul

                                  2.2.2.3.1.21. malol

                                  2.2.2.3.1.22. kaiep

                                  2.2.2.3.1.23. kairiru

                                  2.2.2.3.1.24. terebu

                                  2.2.2.3.1.25. biem

                                  2.2.2.3.1.26. kis

                                  2.2.2.3.1.27. manam

                                  2.2.2.3.1.28. medebur

                                  2.2.2.3.1.29. sepa

                                  2.2.2.3.1.30. wogeo

                                  2.2.2.3.1.31. yabem

                                  2.2.2.3.1.32. bukawa

                                  2.2.2.3.1.33. kala

                                  2.2.2.3.1.34. labu

                                  2.2.2.3.1.35. aribwaung

                                  2.2.2.3.1.36. aribwatsa (†)

                                  2.2.2.3.1.37. musom

                                  2.2.2.3.1.38. nafi

                                  2.2.2.3.1.39. duwet

                                  2.2.2.3.1.40. wampar

                                  2.2.2.3.1.41. silisili

                                  2.2.2.3.1.42. maralango

                                  2.2.2.3.1.43. unank

                                  2.2.2.3.1.44. adzera

                                  2.2.2.3.1.45. mari

                                  2.2.2.3.1.46. wampur

                                  2.2.2.3.1.47. iwal

                                  2.2.2.3.1.48. hote

                                  2.2.2.3.1.49. yamap

                                  2.2.2.3.1.50. mapos buang

                                  2.2.2.3.1.51. mangga buang

                                  2.2.2.3.1.52. piu

                                  2.2.2.3.1.53. kapin

                                  2.2.2.3.1.54. vehes

                                  2.2.2.3.1.55. dambi

                                  2.2.2.3.1.56. kumalu

                                  2.2.2.3.1.57. patep

                                  2.2.2.3.1.58. zenag

                                  2.2.2.3.1.59. gorakor

                                  2.2.2.3.1.60. numbami

                                  2.2.2.3.1.61. bariai

                                  2.2.2.3.1.62. kove

                                  2.2.2.3.1.63. lusi

                                  2.2.2.3.1.64. malalamai

                                  2.2.2.3.1.65. gitua

                                  2.2.2.3.1.66. mutu

                                  2.2.2.3.1.67. awad bing

                                  2.2.2.3.1.68. mindiri

                                  2.2.2.3.1.69. wab

                                  2.2.2.3.1.70. marik

                                  2.2.2.3.1.71. gedaged

                                  2.2.2.3.1.72. bilbil

                                  2.2.2.3.1.73. takia

                                  2.2.2.3.1.74. matukar

                                  2.2.2.3.1.75. lamogai

                                  2.2.2.3.1.76. mouk-aria

                                  2.2.2.3.1.77. aigon

                                  2.2.2.3.1.78. miu

                                  2.2.2.3.1.79. kaulong

                                  2.2.2.3.1.80. karore

                                  2.2.2.3.1.81. sengseng

                                  2.2.2.3.1.82. akolet

                                  2.2.2.3.1.83. avau

                                  2.2.2.3.1.84. bebeli

                                  2.2.2.3.1.85. lesing-gelimi

                                  2.2.2.3.1.86. solong

                                  2.2.2.3.1.87. apalik

                                  2.2.2.3.1.88. gimi

                                  2.2.2.3.1.89. aiklep

                                  2.2.2.3.1.90. mangseng

                                  2.2.2.3.1.91. lote

                                  2.2.2.3.1.92. mamusi

                                  2.2.2.3.1.93. mengen

                                  2.2.2.3.1.94. maleu

                                  2.2.2.3.1.95. arop-lokep

                                  2.2.2.3.1.96. karnai

                                  2.2.2.3.1.97. malasanga

                                  2.2.2.3.1.98. mur pano

                                  2.2.2.3.1.99. mbula

                                  2.2.2.3.1.100. mato

                                  2.2.2.3.1.101. ronji

                                  2.2.2.3.1.102. sio

                                  2.2.2.3.1.103. tami

                                  2.2.2.3.1.104. amara

                           2.2.2.3.2. Grupo de Melanesia central

                                  2.2.2.3.2.1. bola

                                  2.2.2.3.2.2. bulu

                                  2.2.2.3.2.3. meramera

                                  2.2.2.3.2.4. nakanai

                                  2.2.2.3.2.5. uneapa

                                  2.2.2.3.2.6. vitu

                                  2.2.2.3.2.7. tigak

                                  2.2.2.3.2.8. tungag

                                  2.2.2.3.2.9. nalik

                                  2.2.2.3.2.10. kara

                                  2.2.2.3.2.11. tiang

                                  2.2.2.3.2.12. mandara

                                  2.2.2.3.2.13. lihir

                                  2.2.2.3.2.14. notsi

                                  2.2.2.3.2.15. barok

                                  2.2.2.3.2.16. lavatbura-lamusong

                                  2.2.2.3.2.17. madak

                                  2.2.2.3.2.18. tomoip

                                  2.2.2.3.2.19. tangga

                                  2.2.2.3.2.20. sursurunga

                                  2.2.2.3.2.21. konomala

                                  2.2.2.3.2.22. patpatar

                                  2.2.2.3.2.23. lungalunga

                                  2.2.2.3.2.24. tolai

                                  2.2.2.3.2.25. label

                                  2.2.2.3.2.26. minigir

                                  2.2.2.3.2.27. kandas

                                  2.2.2.3.2.28. ramoaaina

                                  2.2.2.3.2.29. siar

                                  2.2.2.3.2.30. nehan

                                  2.2.2.3.2.31. hahon

                                  2.2.2.3.2.32. saposa

                                  2.2.2.3.2.33. teop

                                  2.2.2.3.2.34. tinputz

                                  2.2.2.3.2.35. halia

                                  2.2.2.3.2.36. hakö

                                  2.2.2.3.2.37. petats

                                  2.2.2.3.2.38. papapana

                                  2.2.2.3.2.39. solos

                                  2.2.2.3.2.40. lawunuia

                                  2.2.2.3.2.41. bannoni

                                  2.2.2.3.2.42. mono-alu

                                  2.2.2.3.2.43. torau

                                  2.2.2.3.2.44. uruava (†)

                                  2.2.2.3.2.45. babatana

                                  2.2.2.3.2.46. ririo

                                  2.2.2.3.2.47. vaghua

                                  2.2.2.3.2.48. varisi

                                  2.2.2.3.2.49. simbo

                                  2.2.2.3.2.50. roviana

                                  2.2.2.3.2.51. kusaghe

                                  2.2.2.3.2.52. marovo

                                  2.2.2.3.2.53. hoava

                                  2.2.2.3.2.54. vangunu

                                  2.2.2.3.2.55. duke

                                  2.2.2.3.2.56. ghanongga

                                  2.2.2.3.2.57. lungga

                                  2.2.2.3.2.58. ughele

                                  2.2.2.3.2.59. kazukuru (†)

                                  2.2.2.3.2.60. tetepare (†)

                                  2.2.2.3.2.61. zabana

                                  2.2.2.3.2.62. laghu (†)

                                  2.2.2.3.2.63. kokota

                                  2.2.2.3.2.64. zazao

                                  2.2.2.3.2.65. blablanga

                                  2.2.2.3.2.66. gao

                                  2.2.2.3.2.67. cheke holo

                                  2.2.2.3.2.68. guramalum (†)

                           2.2.2.3.3. Grupo de Papúa oriental

                                  2.2.2.3.3.1. buhutu

                                  2.2.2.3.3.2. 'auhelawa

                                  2.2.2.3.3.3. oya'oya

                                  2.2.2.3.3.4. unubahe (†)

                                  2.2.2.3.3.5. saliba

                                  2.2.2.3.3.6. suau

                                  2.2.2.3.3.7. bwanabwana

                                  2.2.2.3.3.8. wagawaga

                                  2.2.2.3.3.9. yaleba

                                  2.2.2.3.3.10. anuki

                                  2.2.2.3.3.11. gumawana

                                  2.2.2.3.3.12. bwaidoka

                                  2.2.2.3.3.13. diodio

                                  2.2.2.3.3.14. iamalele

                                  2.2.2.3.3.15. iduna

                                  2.2.2.3.3.16. koluwawa

                                  2.2.2.3.3.17. maiadomu

                                  2.2.2.3.3.18. dobuano

                                  2.2.2.3.3.19. molima

                                  2.2.2.3.3.20. bunama

                                  2.2.2.3.3.21. boselewa

                                  2.2.2.3.3.22. duau

                                  2.2.2.3.3.23. galeya

                                  2.2.2.3.3.24. mwatebu

                                  2.2.2.3.3.25. sewa

                                  2.2.2.3.3.26. dawawa

                                  2.2.2.3.3.27. kakabai

                                  2.2.2.3.3.28. are

                                  2.2.2.3.3.29. arifama-miniafia

                                  2.2.2.3.3.30. doga

                                  2.2.2.3.3.31. gapapaiwa

                                  2.2.2.3.3.32. ghayavi

                                  2.2.2.3.3.33. kaninuwa

                                  2.2.2.3.3.34. ubir

                                  2.2.2.3.3.35. gweda

                                  2.2.2.3.3.36. haigwai

                                  2.2.2.3.3.37. maiwala

                                  2.2.2.3.3.38. minaveha

                                  2.2.2.3.3.39. taupota

                                  2.2.2.3.3.40. wedau

                                  2.2.2.3.3.41. tawala

                                  2.2.2.3.3.42. yakaikeke

                                  2.2.2.3.3.43. maisin

                                  2.2.2.3.3.44. budibud

                                  2.2.2.3.3.45. kilivila

                                  2.2.2.3.3.46. muyuw

                                  2.2.2.3.3.47. misima

                                  2.2.2.3.3.48. nimoa

                                  2.2.2.3.3.49. sudest

                                  2.2.2.3.3.50. magori

                                  2.2.2.3.3.51. yoba (†)

                                  2.2.2.3.3.52. bina (†)

                                  2.2.2.3.3.53. ouma (†)

                                  2.2.2.3.3.54. hula

                                  2.2.2.3.3.55. keapara

                                  2.2.2.3.3.56. sinaugoro

                                  2.2.2.3.3.57. motuano

                                  2.2.2.3.3.58. abadi

                                  2.2.2.3.3.59. toura

                                  2.2.2.3.3.60. kuni

                                  2.2.2.3.3.61. mekeo

                                  2.2.2.3.3.62. lala

                                  2.2.2.3.3.63. waima

                    2.2.2.4. Subrama temotu

                           2.2.2.4.1. Grupo Reefs-Santa Cruz

                                  2.2.2.4.1.1. äiwoo

                                  2.2.2.4.1.2. engdewu

                                  2.2.2.4.1.3. natügu

                                  2.2.2.4.1.4. nalögo

                           2.2.2.4.2. Grupo Utupua-Vanikoro

                                  2.2.2.4.2.1. amba

                                  2.2.2.4.2.2. asumboa

                                  2.2.2.4.2.3. tanimbili

                                  2.2.2.4.2.4. teanu

                                  2.2.2.4.2.5. lovono

                                  2.2.2.4.2.6. tanema

                    2.2.2.5. Subrama oceánica centro-oriental

                           2.2.2.5.1. Grupo Salomón suroriental

                                  2.2.2.5.1.1. bughotu

                                  2.2.2.5.1.2. lengo

                                  2.2.2.5.1.3. gela

                                  2.2.2.5.1.4. birao

                                  2.2.2.5.1.5. ghari

                                  2.2.2.5.1.6. malango

                                  2.2.2.5.1.7. talise

                                  2.2.2.5.1.8. longgu

                                  2.2.2.5.1.9. sa'a

                                  2.2.2.5.1.10. arosi

                                  2.2.2.5.1.11. fagani

                                  2.2.2.5.1.12. bauro

                                  2.2.2.5.1.13. kahua

                                  2.2.2.5.1.14. owa

                                  2.2.2.5.1.15. marau wawa (†)

                                  2.2.2.5.1.16. to'abaita

                                  2.2.2.5.1.17. baelelea

                                  2.2.2.5.1.18. baeggu

                                  2.2.2.5.1.19. fataleka

                                  2.2.2.5.1.20. lau

                                  2.2.2.5.1.21. kwara'ae

                                  2.2.2.5.1.22. wala

                                  2.2.2.5.1.23. gula'alaa

                                  2.2.2.5.1.24. kwaio

                                  2.2.2.5.1.25. dori'o

                                  2.2.2.3.1.26. 'are'are

                                  2.2.2.3.1.27. oroha

                           2.2.2.5.2. Grupo oceánico meridional

                                  2.2.2.5.2.1. Subgrupo Banks-Torres

                                        2.2.2.5.2.1.1. hiw

                                        2.2.2.5.2.1.2. lo-toga

                                        2.2.2.5.2.1.3. lehali

                                        2.2.2.5.2.1.4. löyöp

                                        2.2.2.5.2.1.5. mwotlap

                                        2.2.2.5.2.1.6. alo-teqel (†)

                                        2.2.2.5.2.1.7. lemerig

                                        2.2.2.5.2.1.8. vera'a

                                        2.2.2.5.2.1.9. mwesen

                                        2.2.2.5.2.1.10. vurës

                                        2.2.2.5.2.1.11. mota

                                        2.2.2.5.2.1.12. nume

                                        2.2.2.5.2.1.13. dorig

                                        2.2.2.5.2.1.14. koro

                                        2.2.2.5.2.1.15. olrat

                                        2.2.2.5.2.1.16. lakon

                                        2.2.2.5.2.1.17. mwerlap

                                  2.2.2.5.2.2. Subgrupo Ambae-Maewo

                                        2.2.2.5.2.2.1. sungwadia

                                        2.2.2.5.2.2.2. maewo central

                                        2.2.2.5.2.2.3. baetora

                                        2.2.2.5.2.2.4. ambae oriental

                                        2.2.2.5.2.2.5. ambae occidental

                                  2.2.2.5.2.3. Subgrupo Pentecostés

                                        2.2.2.5.2.3.1. raga

                                        2.2.2.5.2.3.2. apma

                                        2.2.2.5.2.3.3. ske

                                        2.2.2.5.2.3.4. sowa (†)

                                        2.2.2.5.2.3.5. sa

                                        2.2.2.5.2.3.6. ambrym septentrional

                                  2.2.2.5.2.4. Subgrupo Ambrym-Paama

                                        2.2.2.5.2.4.1. paamés

                                        2.2.2.5.2.4.2. daakaka

                                        2.2.2.5.2.4.3. lonwolwol

                                        2.2.2.5.2.4.4. Port Vato

                                        2.2.2.5.2.4.5. ambrym suroriental

                                        2.2.2.5.2.4.6. orkon (†)

                                  2.2.2.5.2.5. Subgrupo Epi

                                        2.2.2.5.2.5.1. bieria

                                        2.2.2.5.2.5.2. maii

                                        2.2.2.5.2.5.3. baki

                                        2.2.2.5.2.5.4. bierebo

                                        2.2.2.5.2.5.5. lamenu

                                        2.2.2.5.2.5.6. lewo

                                  2.2.2.5.2.6. Subgrupo Shepherd-Efate septentrional

                                        2.2.2.5.2.6.1. namakura

                                        2.2.2.5.2.6.2. efate septentrional

                                        2.2.2.5.2.6.3. efate meridional

                                        2.2.2.5.2.6.4. eton

                                        2.2.2.5.2.6.5. lelepa

                                  2.2.2.5.2.7. Subgrupo Malekula costero

                                        2.2.2.5.2.7.1. axamb

                                        2.2.2.5.2.7.2. aulua

                                        2.2.2.5.2.7.3. maskelynes

                                        2.2.2.5.2.7.4. malua

                                        2.2.2.5.2.7.5. malfaxal

                                        2.2.2.5.2.7.6. mae

                                        2.2.2.5.2.7.7. mpotovoro

                                        2.2.2.5.2.7.8. unua

                                        2.2.2.5.2.7.9. rerep

                                        2.2.2.5.2.7.10. lamap

                                        2.2.2.5.2.7.11. nahavaq

                                        2.2.2.5.2.7.12. malakula nororiental

                                        2.2.2.5.2.7.13. vao

                                        2.2.2.5.2.7.14. burmbar

                                        2.2.2.5.2.7.15. nese

                                        2.2.2.5.2.7.16. nāti (†)

                                  2.2.2.5.2.8. Subgrupo Malekula interior

                                        2.2.2.5.2.8.1. ninde

                                        2.2.2.5.2.8.2. letemboi

                                        2.2.2.5.2.8.3. repanbitip

                                        2.2.2.5.2.8.4. Dixon Reef

                                        2.2.2.5.2.8.5. nasarian

                                        2.2.2.5.2.8.6. avava

                                        2.2.2.5.2.8.7. lingarak

                                        2.2.2.5.2.8.8. vinmavis

                                        2.2.2.5.2.8.9. litzlitz

                                        2.2.2.5.2.8.10. larevat

                                        2.2.2.5.2.8.11. maragus

                                        2.2.2.5.2.8.12. nambas mayor

                                        2.2.2.5.2.8.13. aveteian (†)

                                        2.2.2.5.2.8.14. navwien (†)

                                        2.2.2.5.2.8.15. sörsörian (†)

                                        2.2.2.5.2.8.16. nisvai

                                        2.2.2.5.2.8.17. nasvang

                                  2.2.2.5.2.9. Subgrupo Santo occidental

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.1. valpei

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.2. nokuku

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.3. vunapu

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.4. piamatsina

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.5. tolomako

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.6. tasmate

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.7. wusi

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.8. akei

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.9. malmariv

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.10. merei

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.11. navut

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.12. wailapa

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.13. kiai

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.14. roria

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.15. amblong

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.16. morouas

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.17. tangoa

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.18. araki

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.19. mavea

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.20. tutuba

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.21. aore (†)

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.22. tamambo

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.23. narango

                                        2.2.2.5.2.9.24. tambotalo

                                  2.2.2.5.2.10. Subgrupo Santo oriental

                                        2.2.2.5.2.10.1. sakao

                                        2.2.2.5.2.10.2. butmas-tur

                                        2.2.2.5.2.10.3. nethalp

                                        2.2.2.5.2.10.4. polonombauk

                                        2.2.2.5.2.10.5. ngen

                                  2.2.2.5.2.11. Subgrupo Vanuatu meridional

                                        2.2.2.5.2.11.1. ura

                                        2.2.2.5.2.11.2. utaha (†)

                                        2.2.2.5.2.11.3. sie

                                        2.2.2.5.2.11.4. sorung (†)

                                        2.2.2.5.2.11.5. tanna occidental

                                        2.2.2.5.2.11.6. tanna oriental

                                        2.2.2.5.2.11.7. tanna septentrional

                                        2.2.2.5.2.11.8. tanna suroccidental

                                        2.2.2.5.2.11.9. tanna meridional

                                        2.2.2.5.2.11.10. aneityum

                                  2.2.2.5.2.12. Subgrupo de Nueva Caledonia

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.1. drehu

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.2. iaai

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.3. nengone

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.4. ndrumbea

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.5. numee

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.6. xaracuu

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.7. xaragure

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.8. tiri

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.9. zire

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.10. ajie

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.11. arho

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.12. arha

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.13. neku

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.14. orowe

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.15. haeke

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.16. cemuhi

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.17. paici

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.18. vamale

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.19. haveke

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.20. bwatoo

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.21. hmwaveke

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.22. waamwang (†)

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.23. fwai

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.24. jawe

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.25. nemi

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.26. pije

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.27. pwaamei

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.28. pwapwa

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.29. caac

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.30. kumak

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.31. yuanga

                                        2.2.2.5.2.12.32. nyalayu

                           2.2.2.5.3. Grupo oceánico central

                                  2.2.2.5.3.1. Subgrupo occidental

                                        2.2.2.5.3.1.1. rotumano

                                        2.2.2.5.3.1.2. namosi-naitasiri-serua

                                        2.2.2.5.3.1.3. fiyiano occidental

                                  2.2.2.5.3.2. Subgrupo Pacífico centro-oriental

                                        2.2.2.5.3.2.1. fiyiano

                                        2.2.2.5.3.2.2. gone dau

                                        2.2.2.5.3.2.3. lauano

                                        2.2.2.5.3.2.4. lomaiviti

                                        2.2.2.5.3.2.5. Grupo polinesio

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.1. tongano

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.2. niuafo'ou

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.3. niueano

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.4. walisiano

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.5. futuniano

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.6. pukapukano

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.7. renelés

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.8. tikopia

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.9. anuta

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.10. uveano

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.11. futuna-aniwa

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.12. mele-fila

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.13. emae

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.14. samoano

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.15. tokelauano

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.16. tuvaluano

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.17. nukuoro

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.18. kapingamarangi

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.19. nukuria

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.20. takuu

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.21. nukumanu

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.22. ontong java

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.23. sikaiana

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.24. pileni

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.25. pascuense

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.26. marquesano

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.27. mangarevano

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.28. hawaiano

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.29. tahitiano

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.30. austral

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.31. rapa

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.32. tuamotuano

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.33. rarotongano

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.34. rakahanga-manihiki

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.35. penrhyn

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.36. maorí

                                               2.2.2.5.3.2.5.37. moriori (†)

                           2.2.2.5.4. Grupo micronesio

                                  2.2.2.5.4.1. nauruano

                                  2.2.2.5.4.2. kosraeano

                                  2.2.2.5.4.3. gilbertés

                                  2.2.2.5.4.4. marshalés

                                  2.2.2.5.4.5. Subgrupo ponapeano

                                        2.2.2.5.4.5.1. mokilés

                                        2.2.2.5.4.5.2. pingelapés

                                        2.2.2.5.4.5.3. ponapeano

                                        2.2.2.5.4.5.4. ngatikés

                                  2.2.2.5.4.6. Subgrupo trúkico

                                        2.2.2.5.4.6.1. sonsorolés

                                        2.2.2.5.4.6.2. tobiano

                                        2.2.2.5.4.6.3. trukés

                                        2.2.2.5.4.6.4. woleaiano

                                        2.2.2.5.4.6.5. ulithiano

                                        2.2.2.5.4.6.6. puluwatés

                                        2.2.2.5.4.6.7. namonuito

                                        2.2.2.5.4.6.8. tanapag

                                        2.2.2.5.4.6.9. carolinio

                                        2.2.2.5.4.6.10. satawalés

                                        2.2.2.5.4.6.11. mortlockés

                                        2.2.2.5.4.6.12. pááfang

                                        2.2.2.5.4.6.13. mapia (†)

 

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